cover

近期的第二本建筑画册,依然来自 Phaidon Press. 二月的时候在 Page One 看到过一次,当时对建筑师并不熟悉,因此并不知道封面的妙处。这回读完之后,对伊东在开篇所写的 In Search of a New Architectural Order 印象深刻,所以重点探讨一下。画册内容就少拍一些。。

Essay 有三个部分

  1. Architecture is the act of creating order
  2. The order of modernist architecture
  3. Is a new architectural order possible?

Architecture is the act of creating order

作者首先讨论建筑作为一种秩序,第一段写得十分精彩:

Houses once were built by people to protect themselves from the various dangers of the natural world. This attempt at securing a place to be, one that provided a stability that was impervious to the effects of the fluctuating conditions of the external world, was simultaneously also an act aimed at defining human relationships (such as those of the family) in terms of spatial order. In other words, what was required of a house from the very first stage of its historical emergence was the creation of a stable order that both defined external and obeyed internal conditions.

也就是说,房屋创造了一种秩序,调和外部的自然环境与内部的人类关系。巧合的是之前曾在另外两处读到过结构上极其相似的说法。一是 Luigi Ghirri 在『写真講義』之中(输入日文真是太累了= =)

そこにわ撮影者のしるし、つまりその人個人の物語やその人の存在物との関係が色濃く反映されます。しかし錬金術にも似た繊細なさ作業お通して、私たちの内面ーー私の写真家-人間としての内面ーーと私たちの外で生き、私たちがいなくとも存在し、撮影した後も存在し続ける外的な存在物との均衡点お探し当てる方に向かわなければなりません。

以及 Seamus Heaney 在 Crediting Poetry 之中

…poetry can make an order as true to the impact of external reality and as sensitive to the inner laws of the poet’s being…

回到伊东的文章中来。建筑作为一种「拥有形体的秩序」,反映了人们对于空间及环境的认识。例如日本的 shoin-zukuri(書院造)与茶屋。不同时代的社会习俗,美学以及科技在建筑中得到整合与体现:“To construct architecture was therefore an act that depicted the holistic order encompassing the thoughts and sensibilities of a certain society in a certain historical period.” 几何对于秩序的构建至关重要,尤其是在继承了古希腊传统的西方。

The order of modernist architecture

第二部分开始分析现代建筑所表达的秩序。二十世纪的人口剧增与城市化要求城市建筑的尺度相应增大,并且可以在工业上大规模制造。于是 “tridimensional grid” 形态的建筑应运而生,在其中柱与面都以水平或垂直的朝向摆放。世界各地的城市景观变得相似:高耸的办公楼与紧密排列的住宅。

… The architectural order of the twentieth century could therefore be understood as that of the tridimensional grid. This framework is aesthetically embodied in the images of Mies van der Rohe’s steel and glass skyscrapers of Le Corbusier’s concrete Unité d’habitation. These forms express a pure and abstract quality that can be referred back to Euclidean geometry, but they in fact present a contrasting set of meanings when compared to classical geometric expression. Whereas classical geometry emphasized a firmly static and completed order, the geometry of the grid expressed the potentially infinite expansion of a centreless space.

Unité d'habitation

Unité d’habitation

这一段很有意思,让我对 Mies 以及 Le Corbusier 的住宅有了一种新的理解角度。同时也感觉到了一种矛盾:如引文末尾所说,「网格几何」的建筑因其对称的无中心结构仿佛拥有着无限延伸的可能性,而另一方面人们却能够清晰感觉到它对于空间的隔绝,一个个矩形体积的建筑都像是独立而封闭的场所。
Read more