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近期的第二本建筑画册,依然来自 Phaidon Press. 二月的时候在 Page One 看到过一次,当时对建筑师并不熟悉,因此并不知道封面的妙处。这回读完之后,对伊东在开篇所写的 In Search of a New Architectural Order 印象深刻,所以重点探讨一下。画册内容就少拍一些。。

Essay 有三个部分

  1. Architecture is the act of creating order
  2. The order of modernist architecture
  3. Is a new architectural order possible?

Architecture is the act of creating order

作者首先讨论建筑作为一种秩序,第一段写得十分精彩:

Houses once were built by people to protect themselves from the various dangers of the natural world. This attempt at securing a place to be, one that provided a stability that was impervious to the effects of the fluctuating conditions of the external world, was simultaneously also an act aimed at defining human relationships (such as those of the family) in terms of spatial order. In other words, what was required of a house from the very first stage of its historical emergence was the creation of a stable order that both defined external and obeyed internal conditions.

也就是说,房屋创造了一种秩序,调和外部的自然环境与内部的人类关系。巧合的是之前曾在另外两处读到过结构上极其相似的说法。一是 Luigi Ghirri 在『写真講義』之中(输入日文真是太累了= =)

そこにわ撮影者のしるし、つまりその人個人の物語やその人の存在物との関係が色濃く反映されます。しかし錬金術にも似た繊細なさ作業お通して、私たちの内面ーー私の写真家-人間としての内面ーーと私たちの外で生き、私たちがいなくとも存在し、撮影した後も存在し続ける外的な存在物との均衡点お探し当てる方に向かわなければなりません。

以及 Seamus Heaney 在 Crediting Poetry 之中

…poetry can make an order as true to the impact of external reality and as sensitive to the inner laws of the poet’s being…

回到伊东的文章中来。建筑作为一种「拥有形体的秩序」,反映了人们对于空间及环境的认识。例如日本的 shoin-zukuri(書院造)与茶屋。不同时代的社会习俗,美学以及科技在建筑中得到整合与体现:“To construct architecture was therefore an act that depicted the holistic order encompassing the thoughts and sensibilities of a certain society in a certain historical period.” 几何对于秩序的构建至关重要,尤其是在继承了古希腊传统的西方。

The order of modernist architecture

第二部分开始分析现代建筑所表达的秩序。二十世纪的人口剧增与城市化要求城市建筑的尺度相应增大,并且可以在工业上大规模制造。于是 “tridimensional grid” 形态的建筑应运而生,在其中柱与面都以水平或垂直的朝向摆放。世界各地的城市景观变得相似:高耸的办公楼与紧密排列的住宅。

… The architectural order of the twentieth century could therefore be understood as that of the tridimensional grid. This framework is aesthetically embodied in the images of Mies van der Rohe’s steel and glass skyscrapers of Le Corbusier’s concrete Unité d’habitation. These forms express a pure and abstract quality that can be referred back to Euclidean geometry, but they in fact present a contrasting set of meanings when compared to classical geometric expression. Whereas classical geometry emphasized a firmly static and completed order, the geometry of the grid expressed the potentially infinite expansion of a centreless space.

Unité d'habitation

Unité d’habitation

这一段很有意思,让我对 Mies 以及 Le Corbusier 的住宅有了一种新的理解角度。同时也感觉到了一种矛盾:如引文末尾所说,「网格几何」的建筑因其对称的无中心结构仿佛拥有着无限延伸的可能性,而另一方面人们却能够清晰感觉到它对于空间的隔绝,一个个矩形体积的建筑都像是独立而封闭的场所。

Is a new architectural order possible?

第三部分以对前述秩序的反思开始:

Contemporary society is controlled by the dominant logic of capital. Architecture too is on the verge of becoming a product of economy and information. New products, such as offices, apartments or hotels, can easily be produced one after another just by changing the surface of the grid’s frame…
The order of the grid assiduously amplifies the homogenization of space. This is because a homogeneous space ensures better economic efficiency and the provision of equal environmental conditions.

在现代建筑「网格几何」的背后,是「资本逻辑」在影响着建筑的形式,使空间变得越来越同质(想到 Benjamin)。于此相对,传统的木造建筑会根据环境与地理的因素,如光照,湿度与风而产生多样的变化。这些变化即便微小也会对居住者的意识产生着重要影响。

Is it not alarming that people are letting the sharpness of their senses, in other words their animal instincts, denegerate under the order of grid cuts them loose from nature?

同质空间在某种程度上也将导致居住者的同质。这或许不是一种夸张的说法:那些单调乏味又充满政治意义的建筑看多了的话或许真的会变蠢也未可知。「网格几何」的另一个问题是它与自然界的物理隔绝,这与节能理念有着根本的矛盾。

我们需要一种新的秩序,它让内在环境与自然的关系更加紧密。一种做法是改变同质的空间。建筑家可以使线条与平面不再正交,而是以各种不同的角度相交,从而规则的「网格」将会成为不规则的几何图形。进一步,可以扭曲平面使其成为各种各样的曲面。然而这样的操作虽然可以打破已有的秩序,并不能确保一种新秩序的诞生。为了达成这一目标,需在自然界中寻找启示

Humanity developed its classical geometric shapes and grid spaces by seeking an absolute order against the world of natural phenomena, a world of animals and plants regarded as having no conceivable order because of its constant repetition of the cycle of fluid growth, decay and death. What today attracts our attention most compellingly is exactly this fluid order in nature that constantly grows and changes…

The most prominent characteristic of living organisms is the fact that their order is not absolute. The conformity of things may reach a certain balance in one particular instant, but in the next moment it transforms into a different one. This order is relative, flexible and soft. It is a constantly and dynamically repeated self-organization.

可以感受到 Metabolist 学派的影响。流动而变化的生物体,启发多变有机的建筑与不规则而异质的空间。一种更为复杂与隐秘的秩序,它灵活动态,并非静止不变,而是不断地重新组织。如果这样的思想真的能在未来的建筑中得到体现,那么在其中居住的体验一定会非常有趣吧。伊东在 TOD’s 以及 MIKIMOTO 中树状与不规则的表面即是向着此方向的一种尝试吧。

(人们从自然中得到自由之后,又盼望返回自然。最初的房屋是自然中的庇护所,而现在的建筑构筑一种与自然更为开放的关系

为了设计这样新型的建筑,需要「算法」的帮助:“An ‘algorithm’ could be defined as rule that correctly generates a complex and unstable, but at the same time soft and highly flexible, order”.(为了模仿有生命的自然,人类使用的工具是以逻辑电路为基础的计算机,和基于力学分析与数学的算法。

In Search of a New Architectural Order 以伊东的美好愿景结尾

I think we should create architecture that makes people happy, cheerful and more energetic, taking at the same time a significant step towards a humane solution to the issues posed by the global environment.

瞑想の森 市営斎場

瞑想の森 市営斎場

瞑想の森 市営斎場

瞑想の森 市営斎場

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Restaurant Bar "Nomad"

Restaurant Bar “Nomad”

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